What is Gross Income? Definition, Formula & Example

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It is critical to understand gross income. This is due to the fact that gross income is the starting point for computing many different types of income. It assists you in determining your taxable income and allows you to repay your loans and rent.

Knowing your gross income is critical to allowing your business to develop, but it won’t help you unless you understand why it’s important, how to calculate it, and how it differs from net income. Read on to find out the answers to these questions.

What is Gross Income? 

Individuals’ gross income is the amount of money they earn before taxes and other deductions are deducted. Salary, bonuses, tips, hourly pay, rental income, dividends from stocks and bonds, and savings account interest are all examples of earned income. People can generate income from several part-time, temporary, or freelance positions in the less traditional but rising “gig” economy. All of the money you make from these jobs will be added to your gross income.

To minimise misinterpretation, it’s important to understand that businesses have different definitions of gross income. Gross income, often known as gross profit, is the total revenue collected through sales less the cost of items sold for a business. The 1A profit and loss statement line item is gross profit.

Understanding Gross Income

Individuals and businesses have distinct components to their gross income. A person’s gross income can be simply calculated by reviewing a recent pay stub or estimating their hours worked and wage. Alternatively, calculating a company’s gross income may necessitate a bit more work.

Lenders and landlords evaluate an individual’s gross income to decide whether that person is a worthy borrower or renter. Before deducting deductions to calculate the amount of tax payable, gross income is the starting point when filing federal and state income taxes.

To understand how the product-specific element of its business functions, a corporation measures its gross income. A corporation can better analyze what drives success or failure by using gross income and limiting what expenses are included in the analysis. If a corporation wants to know how a specific product line is performing, it does not want to see the company’s rent expense included in the performance because it is an unrelated administrative expense.

Importance of Gross Income

If you’re trying to partner with new companies, your gross earnings are important information to provide.

It’s critical to understand your gross income because it’s utilised for a variety of purposes that may be significant to you, including:

  • Loan qualification: When you apply for an installment loan, lenders will normally check to see if your gross income satisfies a particular minimum threshold before choosing whether or not to approve the loan.
  • Rental housing: Landlords typically assess potential renters’ gross income to evaluate whether they will be able to pay their rent on time.
  • Credit limit: When calculating your credit limit, credit card companies normally take your gross income into account.
  • Taxes: Gross income is part of the calculation – the starting point – that federal and state tax agents use to determine how much tax you owe.
  • Salary bargaining: Knowing your present gross income can help you bargain for a greater gross income in the future.

Formula for Calculating Gross Income

Individuals and businesses have different formulas for calculating and making gross income adjustments. Let us now look at the formulas for both of these entities in further detail.

For Individuals:

Gross Income = Salary + Interest + Dividends + Rent

For Companies:

Gross Income = Revenue – Cost of Goods Sold

How to Calculate Your Total Gross Income

It is quite simple to compute your gross income. To calculate annual gross income, first determine the basic components such as basic income streams and expenses, then use the methods indicated below to calculate using the formula.

For Individuals:

The gross earnings can be calculated by adding the following components together:

  • Wages or Salary: The total pay supplied by an employer to an individual. Wages are used when such pay is granted on an hourly or daily basis.
  • Rent: Rental profits from residential or commercial properties are also included in gross earnings.
  • Dividends: Dividends on preferred stock and bonds are also considered income.
  • Interest: Interest earned on deposits and loans is included in gross earnings.
  • Capital Gain or Loss: Gross Earnings include an individual’s profit or loss from the sale of capital assets or property. This comprises real estate, land, structures, and valuables.
  • Income from Other Sources: All other sources of income are included in gross earnings. Pensions, alimony, prizes, lotteries, and gifts are examples.

For Companies:

Companies’ gross profit can be estimated by subtracting the cost of items sold from the entity’s revenue.

  • Revenue: The entire sales proceeds generated by a corporation in a certain period.
  • COGS (Cost of Goods Sold): COGS refers to the direct cost of producing goods. It takes into account the costs of materials, labour, packaging, and freight.

Both of these items can be found on a company’s income statement. All non-operating expenses are removed, and only production-related expenses are taken into account during the calculation. Non-operating expenses are those that are unrelated to a company’s primary activities. They are often reported on a company’s income statement.

Examples of Gross Income

With the help of a few of instances for both individuals and organisations, let us comprehend the notion of gross income adjustments and its other subtle details:

Example of Individual Gross Income

Assume a person earns £75,000 per year, earns £1,000 per year in savings account interest, £500 per year in stock dividends, and earns £10,000 per year from rental property income. Their annual gross income is £86,500. Alternatively, the individual can compute a monthly gross income of around £7,200.

Assume the same person pays £1,500 in rent, £450 in student loans, and £300 towards an auto loan each month. For non-tax purposes, all three of these expenses are deducted from gross income. The gross income of an individual solely takes into account the revenue earned.

In terms of federal income tax, suppose the individual paid £500 in student loan interest the previous year. Student loan interest is an above-the-line deduction used to calculate adjusted gross income when submitting their tax return. Assuming the individual earned the same amount as last year, his or her AGI is £86,000 (£86,500 – £500).

Example of a Company’s Gross Income

For the three months ending, Apple’s consolidated statement of operations recorded total net sales of £97.278 billion. The corporation spent £49.290 billion on product development and another £5.429 billion on services as part of its cost of goods sold. Apple recorded a gross income of £42.559 billion after deducting net sales from total cost of goods sold.

Apple also spent £6.3 billion on R&D, £6.2 billion on selling, general, and administrative expenses, and £5.1 billion on income taxes. When determining gross income, all three of these expenses are deducted. The gross income of a corporation solely includes net sales less COGS.

Gross Income vs. Net Income

Depending on whether it is a business or a wage earner, gross and net income have various meanings. Individuals’ net income is the money they take home from their efforts.

As previously stated, gross income is the amount your organisation makes from selling goods or services before tax, administrative, selling, and other expenditures are removed.

Alternatively, net income is the amount left over after deducting all sales expenses from your company’s earnings. Gross income is the total of your profits before deducting your expenses. In contrast, net income is the final profit or loss after all expenses have been deducted.

The following are their formulas:

Gross Income = Revenue – COGS. 

Net Income = Gross Earnings – Expenses. 

Assume your company’s annual revenue is £1,000,000. Your selling expenses are £250,000, and your cost of products sold is £600,000. Your gross income will then be £400,000, with a net income of £150,000.

You’ll notice the revenue and cost of products sold on your income statement. This will result in an increase in your gross earnings. Net income is the bottom line item on your balance sheet, appearing after all other expenses.

If your net income is smaller than your gross income, you must cut other expenses, such as indirect costs. Unlike gross earnings, net income includes other sources of income such as dividends and interest.

Is Gross Income Before or After Taxes?

The amount earned by your company before taxes and other deductions is known as gross income. Gross earnings for individuals include pay or wages, rent, commission, dividends, and interest. You may calculate your gross income for a firm by deducting the cost of products sold from your sales revenue.

What is the Monthly Gross Income?

To calculate your own monthly gross income, add all of your earnings before deducting any taxes or costs. You can also compute your gross income by multiplying your monthly pre-tax compensation by your hourly rate.

Alternatively, a company’s monthly gross income is the sum of its revenue minus its cost of products sold.

How is Adjusted Gross Income Calculated?

Adjusted gross income (AGI) is calculated by deducting different deductible expenses (loan interest, tuition fees, etc.) and contributions (health insurance, life insurance, retirement plan, etc.) from an individual’s gross earnings. As a result, it is denoted as follows.
Gross Income – Adjustments = Adjusted Gross Income (AGI).

Does Gross Income Include Tax?

The gross earnings do not include any taxes; they are the total earnings before taxes and deductions. Gross earnings are an individual’s total earnings from salary/wages, commission, interest, rent, and dividends. The gross profit of a company is calculated by deducting the cost of items sold from the sales income.

Do Home Loans Depend on Gross Income or Net Income?

Banks and other financial organisations favor gross earnings when making home loans. They prefer this to net income. They utilize gross earnings as a criterion to calculate debtors’ debt-to-income ratios (DTI). The statistic is used by lenders to assess borrowers’ ability to repay.

How Can I Calculate Personal Gross Income?

The total amount earned before taxes or other deductions is an individual’s gross income. Typically, an employee’s paycheck will include both the gross and take-home compensation. If applicable, include other sources of income that you have generated—gross, not net.

What Is Net Income?

Net income is derived by deducting taxes and other deductions from gross income, such as retirement account payments, health insurance payments, and loan payments. Those deductions were the source of your surprise when you saw your first paycheck – it was for your net income, not gross. Net income is calculated similarly for firms, which remove taxes, operating expenses, depreciation, and other costs from sales revenue.


Your gross income is calculated by summing all sources of income before taxes and other deductions. Gross income is crucial since it is used to measure your ability to make payments as well as the amount of credit that lenders believe they may securely extend to you.

Gross income is used to compute other types of income, such as net income, adjusted gross income, and modified adjusted gross income.


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