Internal Sources Of Finance

internal sources of finance
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Finance is the lifeblood of any company. The operations of an entity begin with capital, the first source of finance, and terminate with liquidation proceeds, the last source. Finance can be arranged through both internal and external sources. A finance manager, on the other hand, cannot just choose any alternative at random. Each finance choice has advantages and disadvantages, taking into account the cost of finance, the ramifications of taking the finance, the legal implications, and many other factors. Let us now get into the specifics of internal sources of finance.

What Are Internal Sources of Finance?

Internal sources of finance are funds raised by the company and its owners. It can include a company’s profits or money invested by its owners. Internal finance refers to the process of investing in new projects utilizing a company’s own funds and assets. It is the practice of investing in new projects utilizing a company’s own funds and assets.

Internal sources of finance are funds that come from within the company.

The Difference Between Internal and External Sources of Finance

External sources of financing are funds that come from outside the company. Bank loans or mortgages, overdrafts, fresh share issues, hire purchases, government grants, loans from friends and family, or trade credit are all examples.

Internal sources of finance include money raised domestically, i.e. by the firm or its owners, but do not include monies raised externally, i.e. by banks, new shareholders, suppliers, government, friends, family, and so on.

Examples of Internal Sources of Finance

A company’s internal sources of finance might be of various forms. They can be raised by the company or by its owners. Here are some examples of internal sources of finance:

#1. Owners’ funds

Owners might use their personal funds to meet business expenditures and invest in the company. These funds are funds contributed by entrepreneurs to their businesses. These monies are often derived from personal savings, but they can also be produced by the owners, who are occasionally employed elsewhere.

Owners’ funds are a low-cost, rapid, and simple source of capital. This is the least expensive source of finance because there is no interest. It is very simple to raise because it can be set up immediately. However, using the capital of the owners as a source of finance is not always practicable because entrepreneurs may not have enough money to invest in the business.

This type of financing is frequently used by new firms. This is because, while starting a business, entrepreneurs often save money to invest in it.

Alice intends to build an ice cream parlor. She began saving 30% of her monthly pay several months before opening the business to purchase a location and equipment for the ice cream restaurant. An example of an internal source of finance is Alice’s savings.

#2. Retained profits

Businesses can also put their profits to good use. Retained profits are a portion of a company’s earnings that are retained rather than paid to shareholders as dividends.

By investing retained profits, the company raises its overall worth, but it may not satisfy shareholders who were expecting dividends.

A florist in London has a thriving company. The profit generated by the firm is more than adequate to cover all business expenses and pay wages to its employees and owners. As a result, the florist has chosen to expand and create another shop using the proceeds from its sales. Retained profits at the florist are another example of an internal source of finan

#3. Selling unwanted assets

Businesses can also sell some of their assets to make money from goods that are no longer needed for daily operations in order to raise money internally. Additional cars, equipment, and machinery may be included.

Because there are no interest rates, this is a reasonably inexpensive way to raise funds. However, it is only achievable for businesses with the necessary assets.

Previously, a fast-food business would hire its own drivers to deliver food to consumers. However, it abandoned the plan in favor of using an outside delivery service. Because the company used to equip its drivers with cars and motorcycles, it now has multiple vehicles that it no longer requires. As a result, it chose to sell them in order to make cash, which is another example of an internal source of money.

#4. Issue of stock

This option applies to publicly traded companies that can issue additional stock to the public through a subsequent public offering. The offer document describes how the monies earned by an FPO will be used. As a result, the organization might declare business expansion as a goal. The risk premium requested by the shareholders is the finance cost for this source of finance.

#5. Sale of an Entity’s Operating Assets

An entity can sell an old asset to obtain partial finance for a new asset. A company may opt to sell operating assets whose repair and maintenance costs have skyrocketed. This source of funding has no financing costs.

On the other hand, the sale of operating assets as a source of money is appropriate for a company that is about to close its doors. However, if profits are significant as a result of a gain on the sale of operational assets, earnings are of lesser quality. This is because profit from the sale of running assets is not a long-term source of income.

#6. Leading the debt collection

Debt collection is the process of realizing sales proceeds through the sale of goods or the provision of services. Customers are usually given a credit period. However, if the entity is in a cash constraint, it should lead the various debtors. Leading the debt collecting process entails shortening the credit duration available to consumers. This form of funding has no capital costs. Customers’ late payments, on the other hand, may force the company to incur debt, resulting in a higher financial cost.

#6. Reducing Operating Expenses

An entity may elect to cut unneeded business expenses. During operations, managers may unwittingly incur several expenses that, in general, can be avoided. Savings on such expenses help a corporation to better control its financial budgeting, and the saved cashflows can then be utilised for internal purposes.

#7. Business Horizontal Expansion

Horizontal growth occurs when a firm begins manufacturing and marketing auxiliary goods as well as primary products. This enhances the sale of primary items, and the resulting economies of scale can be used to profit from the sale of additional commodities.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal Sources of Finance

Advantages of Internal Sources of Finance

  • Low price. As you may have seen, none of the internal sources of money have any charges associated with them, such as interest rates or other fees. This is because a business will not have to pay additional fees if it takes money from itself.
  • Keeping ownership. By sourcing funding from within the company, a company prevents outside parties from gaining control and ownership. It thereby preserves both control and ownership.
  • There is immediate availability (no clearances required). When a company raises funds on its own, it does not need to seek approval from anyone. It can raise funds anytime it is required without seeking approval.
  • There are no legal obligations. By obtaining funds internally, the company is not legally required to repay anyone. In truth, it is not required to repay any money. This is due to the lack of contracts or third-party involvement in the financing.

Disadvantages of Internal Sources of Finance

  • Financial constraints: When a company borrows money from itself, it can only take the amount of money it has. It cannot rise any longer since it lacks the necessary resources.
  • Earnings are reduced because using internal sources of finance reduces earnings accessible to owners and shareholders.
  • Reduced liquidity: it reduces the quantity of money on hand, making it more difficult to pay bills or suppliers.

As you can see, businesses can raise funds without the involvement of third parties. They accomplish this by the use of owner funds, retained revenues, or the sale of undesired assets. All of these approaches have advantages and downsides that must be carefully addressed in order to raise a suitable amount of money in a timely manner.

Why are Internal Sources of Finance Important?

The financial manager assists the organization in maintaining ownership and control by utilizing internal sources of finance. If the corporation instead issued additional shares to raise capital, it would give up a certain level of power to its shareholders.

What are The 4 Primary Internal Sources of Finance?

Retained profits, the sale of operating assets, the issuance of capital, and debt collection are all typical instances of internal sources of finance. Business owners are not exposed to financial risk and must only deal with financial risk. Because no outside funds are injected, the corporation maintains a favorable leverage ratio.

What is the Difference Between Internal and External Borrowing?

Internal borrowing is the borrowing of a country’s own national resources. This borrowing has no effect on national income, either rising or decreasing. External borrowing refers to funds borrowed from a foreign country and repaid with principal and interest at the end of a set period of time.

What is Internal Equity and External Equity in Finance?

Internal equity refers to funds raised by a corporation from its current shareholders, whereas external equity refers to funds raised by persons or organizations outside of the firm’s ownership structure.

Is Equity Financing External?

External sources of finance are classified into two types: equity financing, which is money given in exchange for a stake in the company and future earnings, and debt financing, which is money that must be repaid, usually with interest.

What is Equity in Stock Market?

Equities are shares that are issued by a firm to investors in exchange for money. In the stock market, equity refers to the shares that investors can buy or sell. The equity market, commonly known as the stock market, is where traders buy and sell shares.

What Does Venture Capital Mean?

Venture capital (VC) is a type of private equity and a type of financing provided by investors to startups and small firms that are thought to have long-term growth potential. Venture money is typically provided by wealthy investors, investment banks, and other financial institutions.

How does Equity Work?

Your equity is the difference between what you own and what you owe on your mortgage. For example, if your property is worth $300,000 and you owe $150,000 on your mortgage, you have $150,000 in equity, or 50%.

In Conclusion

Internal funds give owners confidence that the business is expanding faster and does not need to rely on outside financial contributors. A considerable amount of idle funds, on the other hand, represents a significant opportunity cost for any company. As a result, such internal sources should be exploited to grow the company horizontally and vertically.

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