Demand-Pull Inflation: Meaning & Causes

demand pull inflation
Image source: FreshBooks

Demand-pull inflation is a type of inflation that develops when the demand for products and services rises. This sort of inflation is often produced by overall economic development, technical advancements, or an increase in the inflation rate. When this happens, it can create jobs and promote the economy, but it also raises the price of commodities. Here’s all you need to know about the causes and effects of demand-pull inflation on the economy.

What Is Demand-Pull Inflation?

Inflation is defined as a widespread increase in the price of products in an economy. Demand-pull inflation raises prices due to supply constraints, a condition economists refer to as “too many dollars chasing too few goods.” This sort of inflation can also be caused by an increase in aggregate demand.

A gain in employment may induce an increase in aggregate demand in Keynesian economics, as enterprises need to hire more workers to boost output. A tight labor market means higher wages, which means more demand.

The Causes of Demand-Pull Inflation

Demand-pull inflation is caused by five major factors:

  • When the economy is growing, consumers spend more and take on more debt. This causes a constant increase in demand, resulting in increased prices.  
  • Increasing export demand: A sudden increase in exports forces currency undervaluation.
  • Government spending: Prices rise when the government spends more freely.
  • Inflation expectations: Companies may raise their prices in anticipation of future inflation.
  • Increased money in the system: When the money supply expands but there aren’t enough commodities to go around, prices rise.

Example of Demand-Pull Inflation

Assume the economy is booming and the unemployment rate has reached a new low. Interest rates are also at an all-time low. To get more gas-guzzling cars off the road, the federal government institutes a special tax credit for buyers of fuel-efficient vehicles. The major automakers are overjoyed, even though they did not expect such a confluence of positive elements to occur at the same time.

Many car models are in high demand, yet manufacturers are unable to keep up with demand. Prices for the most popular models grow, and bargains become scarce. As a result, the average price of a new car has risen.

However, it is not only automobiles that are harmed. With practically everyone working and borrowing rates at historically low levels, consumer expenditure on many items exceeds the available supply. That’s demand-pull inflation at work.

Advantages of Demand-Pull Inflation

The following are some of the advantages brought about by demand-pull inflation: –

#1. Increases economic growth

Consumers’ fear that inflation would continue to rise the following year as a result of specific demands may lead them to acquire the product this year rather than postpone the purchase choice. This action on the side of the consumers, by acquiring the product immediately, would encourage further economic growth because the buyer would now contribute to the income of the producer or seller. This, in turn, boosts the economy.

#2. Borrowers will benefit

Borrowers profit from inflation when the money they have now is worth more than the money they will have in the future. As a result, the borrower will be able to return the lenders with money that is worth less than it was when they borrowed it. Furthermore, inflation has the potential to erode the real value of money. As a result of the money that is being paid becoming useless, the borrower benefits in the long run.

#3. Wage increases

An increase in demand-pull inflation, which produces overall price increases, may force enterprises to pay higher wages. Companies that do not raise their employees’ wages will suffer in terms of productivity and morale. As a result, in times of growing inflation, companies tend to raise employees’ pay to help them equal the increased quality of living caused by inflation.

#4. Lenders benefit

If wages are not raised, customers will not have enough money to buy things right now due to demand-pull inflation. As a result, they will borrow, and lenders will benefit because they will now be financing the same good at a greater price and therefore collecting more interest.

#5. Advantage to the government

As long as there is an increase in prices caused by demand-pull inflation, the government’s tax collection rises. Furthermore, inflation will now reduce the real worth of government debt, benefiting the government.


On the other hand, there are several drawbacks associated with demand-pull inflation, which are as follows: –

#1. Money loses its worth

Inflation reduces the actual value of money by requiring more money to obtain the same products due to price increases caused by demand-pull inflation. If the inflation rate is higher than the rate of return on such reserves, the value of the savings is further eroded.

#2. Reduced standard of living

Due to increased demand, demand-pull inflation raises the prices of goods and commodities. These goods and services will now be more expensive for the average consumer. They might not be able to afford the product they were previously utilizing daily. As a result, inflation chips away at the real value of money, and consumers may be bound to a reduced level of living.

#3. The lender’s disadvantage

Because of the loss in the value of money as a result of inflation, one will return the loan in a much smaller sum. As a result of the reduction in the real value of money, the money received would be more lacking in value and worth than what was originally lent.

What Is the Difference Between Cost-Push and Demand-Pull Inflation?

Cost-Push Inflation

Cost-push inflation occurs when prices rise due to rising production and raw material costs. It is usually more ephemeral than other types of inflation, hence central banks are more likely to leave interest rates alone if the cause of a high inflation rate is cost-push inflation. Some economists contend that short-term cost-push inflation frequently leads to long-term high inflation, which is initiated by wage rises in reaction to the initial bout of cost-push inflation.

Demand-Pull Inflation

Demand-pull inflation is a type of inflation that happens when aggregate demand exceeds aggregate supply. When demand exceeds supply, prices rise to increase profits. Demand-pull inflation typically arises when the economy is nearing full employment. According to Keynesian economics, when the economy reaches full employment during a period of economic expansion, general price levels will surge to maximize profits, resulting in inflation.

Cost-Push Inflation and Demand-Pull Inflation: Causes

Causes of Price-Push Inflation

#1. Supply disruption

A supply shock occurs when the price of vital commodities suddenly rises. For example, a rapid increase in the price of oil might result in greater production or transportation expenses for businesses across all economic sectors. Every area of the economy is directly or indirectly dependent on oil. If OPEC raises oil prices significantly, it will raise prices for businesses across the board and may create cost-push inflation.

#2. Wage increases

As worker wages grow, firms frequently change product pricing to maintain profit margins. With rising expenses maintaining pace with rising wages, the economy is on the verge of entering a wage-price spiral. Price increases cause salary increases at an exponential rate, and the value of the currency falls as more money is required to buy products.

#3. Imported inflation

When trade partners experience inflation, some of it might be transferred to the consumer through imports. As an example, suppose Japan experienced a period of inflation. When the United States imports Japanese items, the overall price level is increased, which can boost other prices in the United States if enough imports are sold.

Increases in indirect taxes, such as sales tax and excise levies, can also cause inflation by driving up costs. When value-added taxes or duties are applied to products, price inflation occurs, and the customer ends up bearing some of the additional tax burden.

Causes of Demand-Pull Inflation

#1. Consumption

If consumption and investment rise sharply in a healthy economy, aggregate demand rises. This causes prices to climb despite no change in production costs.

#2. Exchange rate

When a country’s exchange rate falls dramatically, import prices rise and export prices fall. Consumers will swiftly quit buying imports while exports continue to climb. This raises aggregate demand and produces inflation.

#3. Government expenditure increases

Increases in government spending can also increase aggregate demand. This could happen during a government stimulus. Aggregate demand will rise if too much money is invested in the economy too quickly, which is one of the fundamental causes of inflation.

#4. Expectations

The mere expectation of inflation can sometimes cause demand-pull inflation. Companies will boost prices to keep up with perceived inflation, resulting in inflation.

What Are the Three Types of Inflation?

Demand-pull inflation, cost-push inflation, and built-in inflation are three types of inflation. Built-in inflation is a different explanation for rising prices than cost-push and demand-pull theories, emphasizing the impact of consumer and company expectations for future inflation.

What Effect Does Inflation Have on the Economy?

Inflation can have a variety of effects on the economy. For example, if inflation causes a country’s currency to fall, this can assist exporters by making their goods more affordable when priced in foreign currencies.

On the other side, this might hurt importers by raising the cost of foreign-made items. Higher inflation can also boost spending since customers would want to buy things before their costs climb even further. Savers, on the other hand, may see their savings lose real value, reducing their ability to spend or invest in the future.

Is Demand-Pull Inflation Good Or Bad?

Demand-pull inflation can be beneficial to the economy in the near term, but it must be carefully regulated. Increased demand can lead to rising pricing and inflationary pressures, which can potentially kill an economy.

How Does Demand-Pull Inflation Affect Consumers?

Demand-pull inflation has a variety of consequences, including reduced consumer purchasing power, higher borrowing costs, and continued inflation increase. Increases in the overall price level occur when the economy’s total production capacity is unable to fulfill increased demand for products and services.

Does Demand-Pull Inflation Increase GDP?

When aggregate demand in an economy exceeds aggregate supply, demand-pull inflation arises. It entails rising inflation as real GDP rises and unemployment lowers as the economy advances along the Phillips curve. This is usually referred to as “having too much money chasing too few goods.”

How Can Demand-Pull Inflation Be Reduced?

Governments and central banks would have to pursue strict monetary and fiscal policies to counteract demand-pull inflation. Examples include hiking interest rates, reducing government spending, and raising taxes. Consumers would spend less on durable goods and houses if interest rates rose.

Who Benefits From Inflation?

Debtors benefit from inflation because they can repay their loans with money that is less valuable than the money they borrowed. This fosters borrowing and lending, which raises overall spending.

How Does Demand-Pull Inflation Affect Unemployment?

If aggregate demand rises, as it does during demand-pull inflation, there will be an upward movement along the Phillips curve. As aggregate demand rises, so do real GDP and the price level, lowering the unemployment rate and raising inflation.

In Conclusion

Rising prices in an economy are explained by demand-pull inflation, which occurs when aggregate demand exceeds supply. Prices rise as buyers want more due to limited supply. Demand-pull inflation differs from cost-push inflation, in which greater manufacturing costs are passed on to consumers.

  1. How to Ask for a Pay Rise: Step-By-Step Guide
  2. UK Interest Rates: What Is the Current Interest Rate 2023 UK?
  3. INHERITANCE TAX FORM: Limits And 2023 Thresholds
  4. CREDIT CONTROL: Debt Collection Process and Software Explained!


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *